2 New Elements in the Periodic Table: Flerovium & Livermorium

 

The President of IUPAC, Professor Nicole J. Moreau announced the proposed names for the elements with atomic numbers 114 and 116 at the Closing Ceremony of the International Year of Chemistry in Brussels on December 1, 2011.

On May 1,  a Joint IUPAC-IUPAP Working Party assigned the priorities for the discoveries of these elements (Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 83, No. 7, pp. 1485–1498, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/PAC-REP-10-05-01) to collaborative work between scientists from the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia and from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA (hereinafter referred to as the Dubna-Livermore collaborations).

Following the procedure laid down by IUPAC the scientists involved in the collaboration were invited to propose names for the elements.

With Professor Yuri Oganessian as spokesperson the collaborators have proposed the name flerovium (symbol Fl) for element number 114 and the name livermorium (symbol Lv) for that with number 116.

These proposed names have now also been examined and approved by the Inorganic Chemistry Division (Division II) of IUPAC which clears the way for IUPAC to issue a Provisional Recommendations document. These Provisional Recommendations will be made available in the very near future for Public Comment for five months and will also be sent to expert referees.

At the end of the Public Comment period, the Inorganic Chemistry Division will review the comments made and either revise the Recommendations or recommend approval by the IUPAC Council. After approval by the IUPAC Council or by the IUPAC Bureau which, in this case, has been delegated to do so, the Recommendations of the names and symbols will be published in the IUPAC Journal, Pure and Applied Chemistry.

 

Source: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

Budgeted Learning Competencies for Science II (Biology)

Region III

Division of Zambales

Iba

BUDGETED LEARNING COMPETENCIES FOR

SCIENCE II (BIOLOGY)

 

LEARNING COMPETENCIES

Actual No. of Days

Instructional Days

Testing Days

First Grading

49

41

8

1

Nature of Biology June –  19 days   Pretest    1

1.1

Identifying the Unifying ideas in Biology July –   21 days

2

Per. Test 2

1.2

Explain the different Life processes Aug.-    9 days

2

Unit Test 3

2

Determine biological concepts as applied in technology    

Inv. Proj.-2

2.1 Explain biological concepts in a given technology

1

3

Know the tools used in the development of biology and biotechnology

3.1

Identifying the parts and function of the microscope

3

3.2

Name the special tools used in research and technology

1

3.3

Describe the contributions of Filipino and foreign scientists in the field of biology and technology

2

II

Cell Structure and Function

1

Appreciate the cell as a highly organized structure

1.1

Identify the different parts of the cell

2

1.2

Differentiate plant cells from animal cells

2

1.3

Differentiate unicellular organisms from multicellular organisms

1

1.4

Differentiate prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells

1

2

Analyze how discoveries on cellular structure and functions have led to useful technologies

2.1

Explain that the activities of certain cell organelles are used in promoting food production and health

2

3

Appreciate cellular exchange of materials with the environment

3.1

Explain osmosis as a type of diffusion

3

3.2

Distinguish between active and passive transport

2

III Life Energy

1

Describe how organisms obtain energy

1.1

Describe the location and function of chlorophyll pigments

2

1.2

Explain the requirements of photosynthesis

2

1.3

Explain the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis

4

1.4

Give scientific explanations behind farming practices

1

2

Evaluate how organisms produce energy

2.1

Describe the cell part involved in producing energy

2

2.2 Explain the stages of cellular respiration

4

2.3 Evaluate the importance of the interdependency of living things for important gases through oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle

2

Second Grading

50

43

7

IV

Organ systems Aug. –    14 days

 

UT-2

1

Explain the interaction among cells, tissues, organs and systems in maintain the life of an organism Sept. –  21 days

Oct.   –  13 days

 

PT-2

IP-3

1.1 Illustrate the coordinated functions of cells, tissues and organ systems in maintaining the life of plants, animals and human beings

2

1.2 Recognize the necessity of an organized system for proper growth development and survival of organisms

1

2

Familiarize the anatomy and physiology of plants

2.1 Describe the parts and functions of the different organ systems

11

2.2 Explain the requirements of plants for growth

1

3

Understand the anatomy and physiology of humans

3.1 Describe the parts and functions of the different organ systems

13

4

Appreciate the technologies that help the specific defective organ function property

1

V

Reproduction

1

Explain and appreciate the importance of cell division

1.1 Describe the cell cycle

4

1.2 Differentiate mitosis from meiosis

2

2

Compare patterns of reproduction among organisms

2.1 Differentiate sexual and asexual reproduction of organisms

2

3

Familiarize the process of human reproduction

3.1 Describe the stages of development of the fertilized embryo and fetus

2

4

Identify the problems and issues related to fertility and population growth

4.1 Analyze some problems on fertility

2

4.2 Give some implications of rapid population growth

1

5

Demonstrate understanding of the ill effects of human sexually transmitted diseases

5.1 Identify the risk of contamination from various sexually transmitted diseases specially AIDS

1

Third Grading Period

VI

Genetics

48

41

1

Understand the chromosomal basis of inheritance and the role of DNA as a blueprint of life. Oct. – 1 day

 

1.1 Explain the chromosomal basis of inheritance Nov. – 20 days

1

1.2 Analyze the role of DNA in the transmission of traits Dec. – 14 days

2

2

Understand the fundamental role of chromosomes and genes in hereditary variations Jan. – 13 days

2.1 Discuss the relationship of chromosomes and genes  

2

2.2 Explain the chromosomal alterations  

4

3

Demonstrate understanding of the Mendelian principles of heredity  

3.1 Analyze Mendel’s experiment on garden peas illustrating Mendelian principles of inheritance  

2

3.2 Identify traits that follow Mendelian patterns of heredity  

2

3.3 Solve monohybrid crosses given the phenotype and genotypes of parents  

2

4

Understand the non-Mendelian patterns of heredity  

4.1 Infer that certain traits do not always follow the Mendelian principles of heredity  

3

5

Understand some issues concerning advanced technologies in genetics  

5.1 Explain what Genetically Modified Organisms or Food are  

3

5.2 Analyze the effects of genetic engineering  

3

VII

Evolution  

1

Understand the theories of evolution  

1.1 Explain Darwin’s theory of evolution  

3

1.2 Differentiate Lamarck’s theory of evolution from Darwin’s theory  

2

2

Discuss the direct and indirect evidence for evolution  

2.1 Distinguish between direct and indirect evidences for evolution  

2

VIII

Biodiversity Part I  

1

Appreciate the existence of diverse forms of living things  

1.1 Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the different groups of organisms  

8

1.2 Evaluate the economic importance of organisms  

2

Fourth Grading Period  

VIII

Biodiversity Part II

50

28

1

Appreciate the existence of diverse forms of living things Jan.    – 8 days

1.1 Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the different groups of organisms Feb.  – 20 days

20

1.2 Evaluate the economic importance of organisms Mar.  – 22 days

3

IX

Ecosystems  

1

Understand the similarities and differences of ecosystems  

1.1 Differentiate natural from human-made ecosystems  

1

2

Understand man’s role in maintaining balance in nature  

2.1 Analyze the different environmental issues relevant to the community  

3

2.2 Suggest ways of minimizing or preventing ecological problems  

1

DANILO V. ROGAYAN Jr.

Bachelor of Secondary Education

RMTU – San Marcelino

Analytical Study of Human Genetic Traits in the Offspring as Inherited from the Male and Female Parent

All complex living things, plants, animals and humans contain materials that allow them to pass traits to their offspring. In the cells of all living things, genetic material resides inside the nucleus waiting to decide the traits of future generations. Genes containing DNA, one from each parent, line up on pairs of chromosomes. Hundreds or thousands of genes may exist on one chromosome. A human cell contains just 23 pairs of chromosomes but may contain up to 35,000 genes (O’Neil, 2011).

Human genetics describes the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings (Wikipedia, 2011). Genes can be the common factor of the qualities of most human-inherited traits. Study of human genetics can be useful as it can answer questions about human nature, understand the diseases and development of effective disease treatment, and understand genetics of human life.

This paper entitled, “Analytical Study of Human Genetic Traits in the Offspring as Inherited from the Male and Female Parent” seeks to give a substantial overview on the inherited human genetic traits acquired by the offspring from its parents. This likewise show how often genetic traits are contributed by the male parent, by the female parent or both.

The dominance and recessiveness of human genetics traits inherited by the offspring was has been traced and has been analyzed to better understand the concepts of human genetics.

The genes that determine traits have variations known as alleles. These determine slight differences in traits such as whether or not a person has dimples. Inherited alleles may be identical or different. Alleles interact in different ways. One way is to behave in a dominant and recessive manner. The dominant allele trait always presents itself when alleles differ. However, the recessive trait only presents when both alleles are recessive. This interaction only applies to traits determined by a single gene. When more than a single gene determines traits, other more complicated interactions occur.

Through this study, the researcher hopes to contribute a more understandable concept in the study of human genetics as substantiated by the data gathered. Moreover, an easier approach in studying human genetics is also aimed to radiate by this study.

 

To view the research paper, click here:

Genetics Research Paper (Human Genetics)

Comparative Study of Cross Breed from Pure Breed Using Painted Pony and String Beans Varieties of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as Grown in Backyard Gardening

Common bean scientifically known as Phaseolus vulgaris, is an herbaceous annual plant and now grown worldwide for its edible bean, popular both dry and as a green bean. The leaf is occasionally used as a leaf vegetable, and the straw is used for fodder. Botanically, the common bean is classified as a dicotyledon. Beans are a legume and thus acquire their nitrogen through an association with rhizobia, a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Common bean is a species widely cultivated due to its good nutritional composition with high protein content in dry seed and a good source of fiber in snap bean and its high market value. Consumers have progressively shown specific preferences for various combinations of size and shape of bean seeds and pods, and the market reflects this trend by giving preference to types of good quality rather than high yield.

Plant cross-breeding uses deliberate interbreeding  of closely or distantly related individuals to produce new crop varieties or lines with desirable properties. Plants are crossbred to introduce traits or genes from one variety or line into a new genetic background. Progeny from the cross would then be crossed with the high-yielding parent to ensure that the progeny were most like the high-yielding parent, (backcrossing). Plants may also be crossed with themselves to produce inbred varieties for breeding.

Plant cross-breeding relies largely on homologous recombination between chromosomes to generate genetic diversity. Plant cross-breeding is being done to come up with varieties of plants that have: (a) increased quality and yield of the crop; (b) increased tolerance of environmental pressures (salinity, extreme temperature, drought); (c) resistance to viruses, fungi and bacteria; (d) increased tolerance to insect pests; and (e) increased tolerance of herbicides.

The increasing concern on agricultural sustainability favors the maintenance of plant cross-breeding systems which give efficient soil conservation due to the increased ground cover that it provides, and a more stable agricultural production than sole crop, for small farms, where capital is limited and labor is available.

This study seeks to distinguish the characteristics of the pure breed and cross breed common bean using the varieties of beans – the string beans and painted pony beans as grown in backyard gardening by the Bachelor of Secondary Education – Biological Science major third year students of Ramon Magsaysay Technological University – San Marcelino Campus.

To view the research paper, click here:

Comparative Study in Beans

 

Recombinant DNA Technology

This is a written report in Biology prepared by the author about the following topics:

  1. Introduction
  2. The Fragmentation, Separation, and Sequencing of DNA Molecules
  3. Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  4. DNA Cloning
  5. DNA Engineering
  6. Illustrations

To view the content, click the link below.

Recombinant DNA Technology

 

Basic Genetic Mechanisms

This is a written report in Biology prepared by the author about the following topics:
  1. Introduction
  2. RNA and Protein Synthesis
  3. DNA Repair
  4. DNA Replication
  5. Genetic Recombination
  6. Viruses, Plasmids, and Transposable Genetic Elements
  7. Figures

To view the content, click the link below.

Basic Genetic Mechanisms

Decomposers: Rice Wash and Molasses

Here is another study conducted by our group – the Biological Science Major students during our Ecology course.

INTRODUCTION

Decomposers are vital components of the nutrient cycle.  Without decomposers, nutrients would not cycle back into our environment and waste would accumulate at an alarming rate.  If decomposers did not exist, within a month the earth would be covered in a layer of dead flies almost twenty feet deep!  Thankfully, decomposers consume dead plant and animal matter, so the nutrients contained within them can be reused.  Likewise, if nutrients were not recycled in our environment they would not be available to other organisms.

Decomposers can be used as an organic foliar fertilizer. Spraying also allows plants to benefit from the pesticidal properties of the decomposer. Apart from inhibiting arthropod pests like aphids and spider mites, it also suppresses plant diseases (ex. Pythium) and plant parasitic nematodes (ex. root knot nematodes).

Decomposer is also an excellent plant growth promoter and soil amendment. According to soil scientists, using decomposer produces major growth differences between plants grown on soil and water and those grown on soil and decomposer. “The presence of plant growth regulators in the decomposers can influence plant growth significantly independent of nutrient availability.”

 

To read the rest of the paper, download here:

DECOMPOSERS